Lesson 9: Frogs and Toads
NYS Science Common Core
Standard 1-Scientific Inquiry
Key Idea 1:The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.
S1.3 Develop relationships among observations to construct descriptions of objects and events and to form their own tentative explanations of what they have observed.
Standard 2—Information Systems
Key Idea 1: Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information and as a tool to enhance learning.
- use computer technology, traditional paper-based resources, and interpersonal discussions to learn, do, and share science in the classroom.
Standard 4 -The Living Environment
Key Idea: 3- Individual organisms and species change over time.
3.1 Describe how the structures of plants and animals complement the environment of the plant or animal.
c. In order to survive in their environment, plants and animals must be adapted to that environment.
animal adaptations include coloration for warning or attraction, camouflage, defense mechanisms, movement, hibernation, and migration.
3.2 Observe that differences within a species may give individuals an advantage in surviving and
b. All individuals have variations, and because of these variations, individuals of a species may have an advantage in surviving and reproducing.
NYS ELA Common Core
Speaking and Listening
Key Idea–Comprehension and Collaboration
2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.
Key Idea: Conventions of Standard English
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Objectives: Students will compare and contrast frogs and toads.
- Students observe frog and toad skin.
- Students create frog and toad eggs.
- Students practice hopping like a frog and toad.
- Students observe amphibians.
- Students create a Venn Diagram.
- Frog picture
- Plastic Wrap
- Baby Oil
- Toad picture
- Pony Beads
- Zip-lock Baggie
- Shallow pan of water
- Non-skid lily pad shapes
- Animal Tank
- Student Worksheet
- Venn Diagram
- Smart Board
- “Frogs and Toads” by Kate Petty
- Science notebooks
- The teacher will begin by showing students pictures a frog and a toad and ask them what they know about each.
- After the short discussion, the teacher will give students a worksheet that they will be using for the lesson. Students will be broken into small groups to complete activities on frogs and toads. The teacher will explain the instructions of each activity before starting.
Activity 1- Skin
Students will observe and describe the skin of both the frog and the toad. Samples will be provided. Students will record their observations on the worksheet. A picture of a frog will be covered with plastic wrap. The plastic wrap will have a small layer of baby oil on it to represent the slippery skin of a frog. The toad picture will be covered in sand paper. The skin is not technically that rough but will help students recognize the difference between the two.
Activity 2- Eggs
Students observe the differences of the eggs of these two amphibians. Frogs lay their eggs in clumps so they can float and attach to grass or twigs. A Zip-lock bag with pony beads will be floating in a small pan of water for students to observe. Toads lay their eggs in strands so they can float and wrap around branches. A string of pony beads will also be in the water for students to observe. Students will record their observations on their worksheet.
Activity 3- Movement
Frogs and toads both move differently because of their legs. Frogs have longer legs, which allow them to hop different distances. Toads have shorter legs, which allow them to hop shorter distances. Lily pads will be cut out of non slip material. The frog’s lily pads will be placed farther away from each other while the toad’s will be closer. Students will practice hopping the different distances and write their observations on their worksheet.
Activity 4- Observation
Students will observe the frog and the toad in the animal tank. Students compare and contrast the frog and the toad to find differences. Observations are recorded on the sheet.
- After the activities are completed, students will listen to teacher as she reads “Frogs and Toads” by Kate Petty. Students record similarities and differences on the worksheet from the reading. The teacher will also ask comprehension questions throughout the reading.
- At the end of the reading, the teacher will work with the students to create a Venn diagram that compares and contrasts the two amphibians. Students will receive their own diagram to fill in.
Student Venn Diagram
- At the end of the lesson, the students will observe their butterflies which should be turned into chrysalises. In a few days if not already, the cocoons will be beginning to open. Students will write a journal entry in their science notebooks.
Assessment: At the end of the lesson, the teacher will collect the Venn diagrams for a grade. Students will be filling in their diagram along with the teacher so they should have completed information in each part of the diagram. Students are expected to write neatly, and fill in the correct information.